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qy288.vip千亿国际

时间:2019-03-01 15:59:34 作者:


  qy288.vip千亿国际质量指的是客户明确提出,或客户使用要求中客观包含的要求能否满足,今天医学qy288.vip千亿国际公司给大家分享影响qy288.vip千亿国际质量的因素:

  Translation quality refers to whether the requirements specified by the clients or objectively contained in the users'requirements can be met. Today, medical translation companies share with you the factors that affect the quality of translation.

  一、文本因素

  Ⅰ. Textual factors

  1、语义理解障碍:

  1. Obstacles to Semantic Understanding:

  阅读和分析原文阶段,原文的语义含糊性和句法复杂性是影响等值程度最主要的因素。由于原文有意无意的语义含糊,译者很难确定原文的真实语义,不同的人有不同的理解,也就产生不同的译文。如,以汉语为母语的人常喜欢间接地或迂回地表达自己对一个男孩或女孩长相的看法,便说“她长得困难”——这就不能不给译者带来“别扭”的感觉。如果直译为“She grows difficult.”老外读了可能费解;如果意译为“She looks ugly.”原文的风趣就丧失了。

  In the stage of reading and analyzing the original text, the semantic ambiguity and syntactic complexity of the original text are the most important factors affecting the degree of equivalence. Because of the intentional or unintentional ambiguity of the original text, it is difficult for the translator to determine the true meaning of the original text. Different people have different understandings, and thus different translations are produced. For example, native speakers of Chinese often like to express indirectly or circuitously their views on a boy or girl's appearance, and then say "she is difficult to grow" - which can not help but give the translator a feeling of "awkwardness". If literally translated as "She grows difficult." foreigners may be puzzled; if freely translated as "She looks ugly." the original text loses its wit.

  要克服语义含糊,准确传达原文语义就要求译者对原语有较高的把握能力,尽可能综合考虑与原文语义相关的所有因素,挖掘出原文真实内涵。即便如此也难实现绝对的“等值”。

  To overcome semantic ambiguity and convey the original semantics accurately, translators are required to have a high grasp of the source language, take all the factors related to the original semantics into consideration as far as possible, and excavate the true connotation of the original text. Even so, it is difficult to achieve absolute "equivalence".

  原文句法过于复杂也是译者遇到的比较棘手的问题,qy288.vip千亿国际前译者不得不将复杂的句法重新梳理一遍,即先进行语内qy288.vip千亿国际,然后再转换成译语,这也在一定程度上影响了等值程度。

  The complexity of the original sentence is also a thorny problem for the translator. Before translation, the translator has to reorganize the complex syntax, that is, to translate it into the target language first and then into the target language, which also affects the equivalence to a certain extent.

  2、表达方式相异:

  2. Different ways of expression:

  分析完原文后,在原文转换成译文阶段,译者同样遇到很多影响等值的因素,大都与表达方式、文体风格有关。原文里同一个句法单位,译文通常都有几种等值程度不一的表达方式与之对应(固定用法除外),表达方式的取舍在一定程度上决定了译文等值程度的高低。

  After the analysis of the original text, translators also encounter many factors affecting equivalence, mostly related to the way of expression and style. In the same syntactic unit of the original text, the translation usually has several expressions with different equivalence (except for fixed usage). To some extent, the choice of expression determines the degree of equivalence of the translation.

  我们的取舍原则是选择最自然的对等物,即采用最符合译语表达习惯及惯用语搭配的表达方式。

  Our principle of choice is to choose the most natural equivalents, that is, to adopt the expressions that are most in line with the conventions and collocations of idioms in the target language.

  3、语法结构不同:

  3. Different grammatical structures:

  正如Mona Baker所说,不同语言有不同的语法范畴、语法规则和语法结构,这些不同导致它们传达信息的方式也不同。译文语言若缺失原文语言的某种语法范畴或结构,则在译文中很难找到一个与原文直接对应的对等物,译者也不得不对原文的信息或增或删、做出某些取舍。在这些影响qy288.vip千亿国际的语法范畴中,Mona Baker尤其强调了数、性、时态和语体、语态、人称。

  As Mona Baker said, different languages have different grammatical categories, rules and structures, which lead to different ways of conveying information. If the target language lacks some grammatical category or structure of the source language, it is difficult to find a direct equivalent in the target text, and the translator has to add or delete the information of the source text and make some trade-offs. Among the grammatical categories that influence translation, Mona Baker emphasizes numeral, gender, tense and style, voice and person in particular.

  因此,不同语言之间的语法差异也是影响等值程度的一个重要因素。语法差异越大,达到等值的难度也就越大。

  Therefore, the grammatical differences between different languages are also an important factor affecting the degree of equivalence. The greater the difference in grammar, the more difficult it is to achieve equivalence.

  4、文章体裁:

  4. The genre of the article:

  文章体裁是影响qy288.vip千亿国际等值程度一个很重要的因素。不同体裁具有不同的功能,是表情功能、信息功能抑或呼语功能,这在qy288.vip千亿国际中都不能忽视。奈达在论述“动态对等”时提出的四条原则之一便是译文与原文的文学体裁所起的作用一致。

  Genre is a very important factor affecting translation equivalence. Different genres have different functions, such as expressive function, informative function or vocative function, which can not be ignored in translation. One of the four principles Nida put forward when discussing "dynamic equivalence" is that the literary genre of the original text plays the same role.

  例如,原文体裁若具有认识职能,译文也须具有这种职能,原文的语言职能是美学职能,译文也须实现美学职能。诗歌被普遍认为是最难达到等值甚至是一种不可译的文学体裁,不仅因为它在文字、音韵、隐喻等方面的特性,更因为蕴含其中的神韵、意境或者说是味道,即诗之所以为诗的东西都使常人无法企及。

  For example, if the original genre has the cognitive function, the translation must also have this function. The linguistic function of the original text is the aesthetic function, and the translation must also realize the aesthetic function. Poetry is generally regarded as the most difficult literary genre to achieve equivalence or even untranslatability, not only because of its characteristics in terms of characters, phonology and metaphor, but also because of its charm, artistic conception or taste, that is, what makes poetry poetry impossible for ordinary people to reach.

  不同的文章体裁应有不同的等值标准,甚至是每篇文章都应有其自身的等值标准。

  Different genres of articles should have different equivalence criteria, and even each article should have its own equivalence criteria.

  二、文化因素

  Ⅱ. Cultural factors

  不同民族拥有不同的历史背景、思维模式、社会习俗,于是形成自己独特的文化背景,这些文化差异都会承载于各自不同的语言当中。正确理解原文的文化内涵,分析原语和译语的文化差异是做到等值qy288.vip千亿国际的一个前提条件。一般来说,两种语言文化之间差异越大,这两种语言之间的等值转换就越难,等值程度也越会受到影响。

  Different nationalities have different historical backgrounds, modes of thinking and social customs, thus forming their own unique cultural background, these cultural differences will be carried in their different languages. Correct understanding of the cultural connotations of the source text and analysis of cultural differences between the source language and the target language are prerequisites for equivalence translation. Generally speaking, the greater the difference between the two languages and cultures, the more difficult the equivalence conversion between the two languages will be, and the more the degree of equivalence will be affected.

  我们在qy288.vip千亿国际中只有充分考虑到这种文化差异性,尽量将原语的文化信息、文化内涵用符合译语文化习惯的表达方式表现出来,这样才能达到较高程度的等值。

  Only when we fully consider this cultural difference and try to express the cultural information and connotation of the source language in a way consistent with the cultural habits of the target language, can we achieve a higher degree of equivalence.

  三、译者因素

  Ⅲ. Translator factors

  qy288.vip千亿国际也离不开人类活动,其结果还在很大程度上取决于译者。译者具有自身的兴趣、爱好、优势、语言能力和语言外经历,这些都决定着其qy288.vip千亿国际结果。

  Translation is also inseparable from human activities, and the result depends largely on the translator. Translators have their own interests, hobbies, advantages, linguistic competence and extralinguistic experience, which determine their translation results.

  译者自身水平的高低,即其综合素养也成为影响等值程度的重要因素。它包括译者的双语掌握程度、对两种文化的认识深度和敏感度及对译文受众理解能力和知识范围的预知能力等等。

  The translator's own level, that is, his comprehensive literacy, has also become an important factor affecting the degree of equivalence. It includes the translator's bilingual proficiency, the depth and sensitivity of understanding the two cultures, the ability to understand the target audience and the ability to predict the scope of knowledge, etc.

  一般来说,译者解决问题的能力越强、综合素质越高,获得等值的可能性就越大,等值程度也就越高。译本的优劣,关键在于译者,在于译者的译才,在于译者的译才是否得到充分施展。

  Generally speaking, the stronger the translator's problem-solving ability and comprehensive quality, the greater the possibility of obtaining equivalence and the higher the degree of equivalence. The key to the quality of the translated version lies in the translator, the translator's translation ability and whether the translator's translation ability is fully utilized.

中译国际qy288.vip千亿国际(北京)有限公司
China International Translation service Co., Ltd.

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